Trajektori Pertumbuhan Anak Stunting dan Normal di Indonesia

Ernis Asanti, Drajat Martianto, Dodik Briawan

Abstract


Globally, linear growth failure is the most common form of childhood malnutrition, with around 165 million children under five are stunting. However, the link between stunting in children with the risk of overweight or obesity at later ages are still debated. This study aimed to analyze the trajectory of BAZ from children to adolescents in children who were stunted and normal. This study was a retrospective cohort study, using secondary data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) which is a collaboration of RAND and Survey Meter. The subjects in this study were 314 (43.6%) children who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. BAZ trajectory approach used was the Individual Growth Curve (IGC) model. IGC analysis was carried out by Linear Mixed Model procedure using IBM SPSS Statistics version 25. This study indicated that there was a 0.505 (β= -0.505; SE= 0.138; p<0.01) difference in the z-score of BAZ between children who were stunted and normal at the initial measurement. The decreasing of stunted child’s BAZ was 0.078 times smaller (β= -0.078; SE= 0.011; p<0.01), but then the BAZ would increase 0.011 times higher (β= 0.01; SE= 0.002; p<0.01) than the normal children. This study showed that there were differences of BAZ trajectory between stunted and normal children.


Keywords


BAZ; stunting; trajectory

References


Adair LS, Fall CHD, Osmond C, Stein AD, Martorell R, Ramirez-Zea M, Sachdev HS, Dahly DL, Bas I, Norris SA, et al. Association of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies. Lancet. 2013;382 (9891):525-34.

Bove I, Miranda T, Campoy C, Uauy R, Napol M. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88(9):747–751.

Carter M, Dubois L, Tremblay M, Taijaard M, Jones BL. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environmental versus individual social and early life factors. PLoS One. 2012;(10):e47065.

De Leeuw J, Kreft IGG. Questioning multilevel methods. J Educ Behav. 1995;20(2):171-189.

Duc LT. The Effect of Early Age Stunting on Cognitive Achievement Among Children in Vietnam. Oxford: Young Lives, Department of International Development, University of Oxford; 2009.

Grillol LP, Siqueira AF, Silva AC, Martins PA, Verreschi IT, Sawaya AL. Lower resting metabolic rate and higher velocity of weight gain in a prospective study of stunted vs nonstunted girls living in the shantytowns of São Paulo, Brazil. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(7): 835-842.

Heinrich CJ, Lynn LE. Means and ends: a comparative study of empirical methods for investigating governance and performance. J Public Admin Res Theory. 2001;11(1):109–138.

Hughes AR, Sherriff A, Ness AR, Reilly JJ. Timing of adiposity rebound and adiposity in adolescence. Pediatrics. 2014;134(5):e1354-e1361.

Kar BR, Rao SL, Chandramouli BA. Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition. Behav Brain Funct. 2008;4(31):1-12.

Kemenkes. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2018.

Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1950.

Koyama S, Ichikawa G, Kojima M, Shimura N, Sairenchi T, Arisaka O. Adiposity rebound and the development of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014;133(1): e114-e119.

Nanri H, Shirasawa T, Ochiai H, Nomoto, S, Hoshino H, Kokaze A. Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is related to higher anthropometric measurements in preadolescence. Child Care Health Dev. 2017; 43(3):435-440.

Pryor LE, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Touchette E, Dubois L, Genolini C, Liu X, Falissard B, Cote SM. Developmental trajectories of body mass index in early childhood and their risk factors: an 8-year longitudinal study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(10): 906-12.

Rachmi CN, Agho KE, Li M, Baur LA. Stunting, coexisting with overweight in 2.0–4.9 year old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from four cross sectional surveys. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(15): 2698-707.

Rachmi CN, Agho KE, Li M, Baur LA. Are stunted young Indonesian children more likely to be overweight, thin, or have high blood pressure in adolescence? Int J Public Health. 2017;62(1):153-162.

Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Maillot M, Bellisle F. Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006; 30(4):S11–S17.

Savanur MS, Ghugre PS. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(8): 1389-1396.

Shek DTL, Cecilia MS. Longitudinal data analyses using linear mixed models in SPSS: concepts, procedures and illustrations. The Scientific World Journal. 2011;11(2011):42-76.

Smith AJ, O’Sullivan PB, Beales DJ, de Klerk N, Straker LM. Trajectories of childhood body mass index are associated with adolescent sagittal standing posture. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(2-2):e97-106.

Tanner S, Leonard WR, Reyes-García V, TAPS Bolivia Study Team. The Consequences of Linear Growth Stunting: Influence on Body Composition Among Youth in the Bolivian Amazon. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2014;153(1): 92-102.

Wen X, Kleinman K, Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Taveras EM. Childhood body mass index trajectories: modeling, characterizing, pairwise correlations and socio-demographic predictors of trajectory characteristics. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12(38):1-13.

WHO. Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Who Technical Report Series No. 854. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1995.

Zhou J, Dang S, Zeng L, Gao W, Wang D, Li Q, Jiang W, Pei L, Li C, Yan H. Rapid infancy weight gain and 7 to 9 year childhood obesity risk: a prospective cohort study in rural western China. Medicine. 2016;95(16):e3425.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.