Konsumsi Fast Food, Soft Drink, Aktivitas Fisik, dan Kejadian Overweight Siswa Sekolah Dasar di Jakarta

Vina Rizky Putri, Dudung Angkasa, Rachmanida Nuzrina

Abstract


Abstrak

Prevalensi overweight pada anak umur 5-12 tahun di provinsi Jakarta tertinggi (30,1%,  nasional 10,8%) Tujuan penelitian ialah 1) menganalisis hubungan konsumsi fast food, soft drink, dan aktivitas fisik (AF) dengan kejadian overweight 2) mengetahui perbedaan asupan, lingkar pinggang (LP) dan total lemak tubuh (TLB) pada anak sekolah dasar. Studi potong lintang dilakukan dengan jumlah responden yang terdiri dari masing-masing 57 anak overweight dan berat normal di sekolah dasar negeri di Jakarta. Konsumsi fast food,soft drink diukur dengan FFQ, asupan energi dan zat gizi makro dengan recall tiga hari tak berturut, AF dengan kuesioner aktivitas fisik anak, LP dengan pita standar dan TLB dengan bodyfat analyzer. Odd risk/OR (95%CI) dan uji beda sebagai uji statistik, signifikan jika (p<0,05). Hasil menunjukkan anak dengan AF ringan, konsumsi gorengan (≥3x/minggu), dan minuman bergula (≥3x/minggu) berisiko 2,5 (95% CI 1,19-5,39), 6,8 (CI 2,82-16,52), dan 10,7 (CI 4,46-25,72) kali mengalami overweight, secara berturut, dibanding anak dengan AF sedang, konsumsi gorengan dan minuman gula tinggi (masing-masing <3x/minggu). Ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok overweight dibanding berat normal berdasarkan asupan energi dan zat gizi makro,  LP dan TLB. Perlu ditekankan pola makan dan pola hidup sehat untuk menghindari dampak negatif overweight di masa depan.

Kata kunci: fast food, IMT, lemak tubuh, lingkar pinggang, soft drink

 

Abstract

 The prevalence of overweight children aged 5-12 years in Jakarta province is the highest (30.1%, national is 10.8%). This study aims (1.) to analyze the relationship among fast food, soft drink, and physical activity (PA) with overweight status and (2.) to know the difference of intake, waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (TBF) in primary school children. This cross sectional study was conducted with a number of respondents consisting of 57 overweight and 57 normal weight children in public primary schools in Jakarta. The consumption of fast food and soft drink was measured using food frequency questionnaire, energy and macro nutrient intake by using three non-consecutive day recall method, PA by using physical activity questionnaire, WC by using standard tape, and TBF by using bodyfat analyzer. Odd risk/OR (95% CI) and different test were used as statistical test with p <0.05. The results showed that children with low PA, ≥3x/week fritter consumption, and ≥3x/week sugary drinks were at risk 2.5 times (95% CI 1.19-5.39), 6.8 times (CI 2.82 -16.52), and 10.7 times (CI 4.46-25.72) to overweight, respectively, compared with children with moderate PA, <3x/week fritter consumption, and <3x/week high sugar drink. There were significant differences between the overweight group compared with the normal weight based on energy and macro nutrient intake, WC, and TBF. Diet and healthy lifestyle should be emphasized to avoid negative impact of overweight in the future.

Keywords: fast food, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, soft drink


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.ijhn.2017.004.01.5

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